Journal cover Journal topic
Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 709-720, 2017
http://www.geosci-model-dev.net/10/709/2017/
doi:10.5194/gmd-10-709-2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Development and technical paper
15 Feb 2017
Spatio-temporal approach to moving window block kriging of satellite data v1.0
Jovan M. Tadić, Xuemei Qiu, Scot Miller, and Anna M. Michalak Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Abstract. Numerous existing satellites observe physical or environmental properties of the Earth system. Many of these satellites provide global-scale observations, but these observations are often sparse and noisy. By contrast, contiguous, global maps are often most useful to the scientific community (i.e., Level 3 products). We develop a spatio-temporal moving window block kriging method to create contiguous maps from sparse and/or noisy satellite observations. This approach exhibits several advantages over existing methods: (1) it allows for flexibility in setting the spatial resolution of the Level 3 map, (2) it is applicable to observations with variable density, (3) it produces a rigorous uncertainty estimate, (4) it exploits both spatial and temporal correlations in the data, and (5) it facilitates estimation in real time. Moreover, this approach only requires the assumption that the observable quantity exhibits spatial and temporal correlations that are inferable from the data. We test this method by creating Level 3 products from satellite observations of CO2 (XCO2) from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), CH4 (XCH4) from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2). We evaluate and analyze the difference in performance of spatio-temporal vs. recently developed spatial kriging methods.

Citation: Tadić, J. M., Qiu, X., Miller, S., and Michalak, A. M.: Spatio-temporal approach to moving window block kriging of satellite data v1.0, Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 709-720, doi:10.5194/gmd-10-709-2017, 2017.
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Short summary
We developed a new method to create contiguous maps from sparse and/or noisy satellite observations. This approach could be used to produce retroactive or real-time estimates of environmental data observed by satellites which exhibit spatio-temporal autocorrelations. The method could be applied in a standalone mode or as part of a broader satellite data processing package. Maps produced in this way could then be incorporated into physical and biogeochemical models of the Earth system.
We developed a new method to create contiguous maps from sparse and/or noisy satellite...
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