Formulation of the Dutch Atmospheric Large-Eddy Simulation (DALES) and overview of its applications
1Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, The Netherlands
2Meteorology and Air Quality Section, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
3Department of Multi-Scale Physics, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
4Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The~Netherlands
5Applied Physics Department, Technical University of Catalonia, and Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC), Barcelona, Spain
6Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstraße 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
Abstract. The current version of the Dutch Atmospheric Large-Eddy Simulation (DALES) is presented. DALES is a large-eddy simulation code designed for studies of the physics of the atmospheric boundary layer, including convective and stable boundary layers as well as cloudy boundary layers. In addition, DALES can be used for studies of more specific cases, such as flow over sloping or heterogeneous terrain, and dispersion of inert and chemically active species. This paper contains an extensive description of the physical and numerical formulation of the code, and gives an overview of its applications and accomplishments in recent years.