Journal cover Journal topic
Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 749-764, 2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Model description paper
19 Feb 2016
Adjoint of the global Eulerian–Lagrangian coupled atmospheric transport model (A-GELCA v1.0): development and validation
Dmitry A. Belikov1,2,3, Shamil Maksyutov1, Alexey Yaremchuk4, Alexander Ganshin3,5, Thomas Kaminski6,a, Simon Blessing7, Motoki Sasakawa1, Angel J. Gomez-Pelaez8, and Alexander Starchenko3 1National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan
2National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo, Japan
3Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
4N. Andreev Acoustic Institute, Moscow, Russia
5Central Aerological Observatory, Dolgoprudny, Russia
6The Inversion Lab, Hamburg, Germany
7FastOpt GmbH, Hamburg, Germany
8Izaña Atmospheric Research Center (IARC), Meteorological State Agency of Spain (AEMET), Izaña, 38311, Spain
apreviously at: FastOpt GmbH, Hamburg, Germany
Abstract. We present the development of the Adjoint of the Global Eulerian–Lagrangian Coupled Atmospheric (A-GELCA) model that consists of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) model as an Eulerian three-dimensional transport model (TM), and FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) as the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM). The forward tangent linear and adjoint components of the Eulerian model were constructed directly from the original NIES TM code using an automatic differentiation tool known as TAF (Transformation of Algorithms in Fortran;, with additional manual pre- and post-processing aimed at improving transparency and clarity of the code and optimizing the performance of the computing, including MPI (Message Passing Interface). The Lagrangian component did not require any code modification, as LPDMs are self-adjoint and track a significant number of particles backward in time in order to calculate the sensitivity of the observations to the neighboring emission areas. The constructed Eulerian adjoint was coupled with the Lagrangian component at a time boundary in the global domain. The simulations presented in this work were performed using the A-GELCA model in forward and adjoint modes. The forward simulation shows that the coupled model improves reproduction of the seasonal cycle and short-term variability of CO2. Mean bias and standard deviation for five of the six Siberian sites considered decrease roughly by 1 ppm when using the coupled model. The adjoint of the Eulerian model was shown, through several numerical tests, to be very accurate (within machine epsilon with mismatch around to ±6 e−14) compared to direct forward sensitivity calculations. The developed adjoint of the coupled model combines the flux conservation and stability of an Eulerian discrete adjoint formulation with the flexibility, accuracy, and high resolution of a Lagrangian backward trajectory formulation. A-GELCA will be incorporated into a variational inversion system designed to optimize surface fluxes of greenhouse gases.

Citation: Belikov, D. A., Maksyutov, S., Yaremchuk, A., Ganshin, A., Kaminski, T., Blessing, S., Sasakawa, M., Gomez-Pelaez, A. J., and Starchenko, A.: Adjoint of the global Eulerian–Lagrangian coupled atmospheric transport model (A-GELCA v1.0): development and validation, Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 749-764, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-749-2016, 2016.
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