EMPOWER-1.0: an Efficient Model of Planktonic ecOsystems WrittEn in R
Summary: Ecosystem models provide a powerful tool for simulating ocean biology. Care must be exercised when selecting appropriate equations and parameter values to represent chosen marine ecosystems. Here, we present an efficient plankton model testbed, using simplified physics and coded in the freely available language R. Multiple runs can be undertaken for different ocean sites, permitting thorough evaluation of ecosystem model performance. The testbed also serves as an excellent resource for teaching.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2231-2262, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2231-2015, 2015
Development of the Global Sea Ice 6.0 CICE configuration for the Met Office Global Coupled model
Summary: The paper presents a new sea ice configuration, GSI6.0, in the Met Office coupled atmosphere-ocean-ice model. Differences in the sea ice from a previous configuration (GSI4.0) are explained in the context of a previously published sensitivity study. In summer, Arctic sea ice is thicker and more extensive than in GSI4.0, bringing it closer to the observationally derived data sets. In winter, the Arctic ice is thicker but less extensive than in GSI4.0.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2221-2230, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2221-2015, 2015
The integrated Earth system model version 1: formulation and functionality
Summary: The integrated Earth system model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for projecting the joint human-climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an integrated assessment model (IAM) and an Earth system model (ESM) into a common modeling infrastructure. By introducing heretofore-omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers in iESM, we can improve scientific understanding of the human-Earth system dynamics.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2203-2219, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2203-2015, 2015
Tuning and assessment of the HYCOM-NORWECOM V2.1 biogeochemical modeling system for the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans
Summary: Biogeochemical models are increasingly used in forecasting systems. They provide parameter fields such as nutrients, chlorophyll and oxygen for scientific use and for marine management. This paper describes a model currently used for forecasting the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans on a weekly basis and the evaluation of this model against observations. The model provides reliable fields of nutrients, while the predicted phytoplankton fields are still connected with large uncertainties.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2187-2202, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2187-2015, 2015
Thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in fractured rock formations during a glacial advance
Summary: The paper examines the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes that develop in a fractured rock region within a fluid-saturated rock mass due to loads imposed by an advancing glacier. This scenario needs to be examined in order to assess the suitability of potential sites for the location of deep geologic repositories for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The THM processes are examined using a computational multiphysics approach.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2167-2185, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2167-2015, 2015
Development of PM2.5 source impact spatial fields using a hybrid source apportionment air quality model
Summary: An integral part of air quality management is knowledge of the impact of pollutant sources on ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM). This work presents a novel spatiotemporal source apportionment method that generates source impacts for the continental USA. Key sources presented include fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, dust, sea salt, as well as agricultural activities, biogenics, and aircraft.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2153-2165, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2153-2015, 2015
Representing icebergs in the iLOVECLIM model (version 1.0) – a sensitivity study
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2139-2151, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2139-2015, 2015
Evaluation of the high resolution WRF-Chem (v3.4.1) air quality forecast and its comparison with statistical ozone predictions
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2119-2137, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2119-2015, 2015
Application of WRF/Chem over North America under the AQMEII Phase 2 – Part 2: Evaluation of 2010 application and responses of air quality and meteorology–chemistry interactions to changes in emissions and meteorology from 2006 to 2010
Summary: The application of WRF/Chem to North America shows that it can reproduce most observations and their variation trends from 2006 to 2010. The inclusion of chemical feedbacks reduces biases in meteorological predictions in 2010 but increases errors in comparison to WRF. The net changes in meteorology from 2006 to 2010 are mostly influenced by changes in meteorology and those of ozone and fine particles are influenced by changes in emissions and chemical BCONs, and to a lesser extent meteorology.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2095-2117, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2095-2015, 2015
14C-age tracers in global ocean circulation models
Summary: The natural abundance of 14C in CO2 dissolved in seawater is often used to evaluate circulation and age in the ocean and in ocean models. We study limitations of using natural 14C to determine the time elapsed since water had contact with the atmosphere. We find that, globally, bulk 14C age is dominated by two equally important components, (1) the time component of circulation and (2) the “preformed 14C-age”. Considering preformed 14C-age is critical for an assessment of circulation in models.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2079-2094, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2079-2015, 2015
Experiences with distributed computing for meteorological applications: grid computing and cloud computing
Summary: Three practical meteorological applications with different characteristics highlight the core computer science aspects and applicability of distributed computing to meteorology. Presenting cloud and grid computing this paper shows use case scenarios fitting a wide range of meteorological applications from operational to research studies. The paper concludes that distributed computing complements and extends existing high performance computing concepts.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2067-2078, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2067-2015, 2015
A vertically discretised canopy description for ORCHIDEE (SVN r2290) and the modifications to the energy, water and carbon fluxes
Summary: Despite the potential of forest management to mitigate climate change, none of today's predictions of future climate accounts for the impact of forest management. To address this gap in modelling capability, we developed and parametrised a land-surface model to simulate biogeochemical and biophysical effects of forest management. Comparison of model output against data showed an increased model performance in reproducing large-scale spatial patterns and inter-annual variability over Europe.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2035-2065, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2035-2015, 2015
SPHY v2.0: Spatial Processes in HYdrology
Summary: This paper introduces the Spatial Processes in HYdrology (SPHY) model (v2.0), its underlying concepts, and some example applications. SPHY has the flexibility to be applied in a wide range of hydrologic applications, on various scales, and can easily be implemented. The most relevant hydrologic processes integrated in the SPHY model are rainfall--runoff, cryosphere processes, evapotranspiration processes, the dynamic evolution of evolution of vegetation cover, and lake/reservoir outflow.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2009-2034, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2009-2015, 2015
System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) v. 2.1.4
Summary: The System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) is a comprehensive and globally established open source geographic information system (GIS) for scientific analysis and modeling. The current version 2.1.4 offers more than 700 tools that represent the broad scopes of SAGA in numerous fields of geoscientific endeavor. In this paper, we inform about the system’s architecture and functionality and highlight the wide spectrum of scientific applications of SAGA in a review of published studies.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1991-2007, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1991-2015, 2015
Non-singular spherical harmonic expressions of geomagnetic vector and gradient tensor fields in the local north-oriented reference frame
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1979-1990, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1979-2015, 2015
GASAKe: forecasting landslide activations by a genetic-algorithms-based hydrological model
Summary: A model for predicting the timing of activation of rainfall-induced landslides is presented. Calibration against real events is based on genetic algorithms, and provides a family of optimal solutions (kernels) that maximize a fitness function. Accordingly, a set of mobility functions is obtained through convolution with rainfall. Once properly validated, the model allows one to estimate future landslide activations in the same study area, by employing either recorded or forecasted rainfall.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1955-1978, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1955-2015, 2015
Pan-spectral observing system simulation experiments of shortwave reflectance and long-wave radiance for climate model evaluation
Summary: This work describes a new type of observational simulator for directly comparing measurements and models that takes advantage of all of the information in spectrally resolved top-of-atmosphere data. It describes how to model how the spectrum of the Earth, both in the shortwave and the long wave, changes in response to climate forcings, and provides a path towards inline observational simulation for the upcoming Coupled Model Intercomparison Project – Phase 6.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1943-1954, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1943-2015, 2015
AROME-WMED, a real-time mesoscale model designed for the HyMeX special observation periods
Summary: To support the instrument deployment during HyMeX, aiming at studying the high precipitation in the Mediterranean area, a dedicated version of the operational convective-scale AROME-France model was developed: the AROME-WMED model. This paper presents the main features of this numerical weather prediction system in terms of data assimilation and forecast. The forecast skill of the model is then assessed during the HyMeX special observation periods and compared to the operational AROME-France.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1919-1941, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1919-2015, 2015
Global sensitivity analysis, probabilistic calibration, and predictive assessment for the data assimilation linked ecosystem carbon model
Summary: In this paper we propose a probabilistic framework for an uncertainty quantification study of a carbon cycle model and focus on the comparison between steady-state and transient simulation setups. We study model parameters via global sensitivity analysis and employ a Bayesian approach to calibrate these parameters using NEE observations at the Harvard Forest site. The calibration results are then used to assess the predictive skill of the model via posterior predictive checks.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1899-1918, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1899-2015, 2015
Integration of prognostic aerosol–cloud interactions in a chemistry transport model coupled offline to a regional climate model
Summary: We have showed that a coupled modelling system is beneficial in the sense that more complex processes can be included to better represent the aerosol processes starting from their formation, their interactions with clouds and provide better estimate of radiative forcing. Using this model set up, we estimated an annual mean 'indirect' radiative forcing of -0.64W/m2. This means that aerosols, solely by their capability of altering the microphysical properties of clouds can cool the Earth system.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1885-1898, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1885-2015, 2015