FORest Canopy Atmosphere Transfer (FORCAsT) 1.0: a 1-D model of biosphere–atmosphere chemical exchange
Summary: Volatile organic compounds released from forests into the atmosphere play a key role in governing atmospheric concentrations of trace gases and aerosol particles. We describe the development of a 1-D model that simulates the processes occurring within and above the forest canopy that regulate the transfer of these compounds and their products. We evaluate model performance by comparison of modelled concentrations against measurements from a field campaign at a northern Michigan forest site.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3765-3784, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3765-2015, 2015
Methodology for evaluating lateral boundary conditions in the regional chemical transport model MATCH (v5.5.0) using combined satellite and ground-based observations
Summary: This study investigate the representation of hemispheric transport in a regional chemical transport model (CTM) in terms of lateral boundary conditions (LBCs). We evaluate the LBCs both directly with satellite retrievals and indirectly by forcing a regional CTM with LBCs and compare to in-domain observations. We believe that our work makes an important contribution to the methodology of validating LBCs for regional modelling.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3747-3763, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3747-2015, 2015
Updating sea spray aerosol emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.0.2
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3733-3746, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3733-2015, 2015
The Explicit Wake Parametrisation V1.0: a wind farm parametrisation in the mesoscale model WRF
Summary: We introduce the Explicit Wake Parametrisation (EWP) for wind farms in mesoscale models that accounts for the wake expansion within a turbine-containing cell. In the EWP approach, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) production results from changes in vertical shear. The velocity recovery compares well to mast data downstream of the offshore wind farm Horns Rev I. The vertical structure of the TKE and the velocity profile are qualitatively similar to that simulated with large eddy simulations.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3715-3731, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3715-2015, 2015
A simple two-dimensional parameterisation for Flux Footprint Prediction (FFP)
Summary: Flux footprint models describe the surface area of influence of a flux measurement. They are used for designing flux tower sites, and for interpretation of flux measurements. The two-dimensional footprint parameterisation (FFP) presented here is suitable for processing large data sets, and, unlike other fast footprint models, FFP is applicable to daytime or night-time measurements, fluxes from short masts over grassland to tall towers over mature forests, and even to airborne flux measurements.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3695-3713, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3695-2015, 2015
GO2OGS 1.0: a versatile workflow to integrate complex geological information with fault data into numerical simulation models
Summary: We present a workflow to convert geological models into the open-source VTU format for usage in numerical simulation models. Tackling relevant scientific questions or engineering tasks often involves multidisciplinary approaches. Conversion workflows are needed between the diverse tools of the various disciplines. Our approach offers an open-source, platform-independent, robust, and comprehensible method that is potentially useful for a multitude of similar environmental studies.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3681-3694, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3681-2015, 2015
A non-equilibrium model for soil heating and moisture transport during extreme surface heating: the soil (heat–moisture–vapor) HMV-Model Version 1
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3659-3680, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3659-2015, 2015
S4CAST v2.0: sea surface temperature based statistical seasonal forecast model
Summary: The non-stationary links between sea surface temperature and global atmospheric circulation have served to create the S⁴CAST model. Here we describe the model, based on a statistical tool to be focused on the study of teleconnections and predictability of any climate-related variable that keeps a link with sea surface temperature. Due to its intuitive operation and free availability of the code, the model can be used both to supplement general circulation models and in a purely academic context.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3639-3658, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3639-2015, 2015
Ice-sheet configuration in the CMIP5/PMIP3 Last Glacial Maximum experiments
Summary: We describe the creation of boundary conditions related to the presence of ice sheets, including ice-sheet extent and height, ice-shelf extent, and the distribution and altitude of ice-free land, at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), for use in LGM experiments conducted as part of the Coupled Modelling Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3). The difference in the ice sheet boundary conditions as well as the climate response to them are discussed.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3621-3637, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3621-2015, 2015
Taking off the training wheels: the properties of a dynamic vegetation model without climate envelopes, CLM4.5(ED)
Summary: Predicting the distribution of vegetation under novel climates is important, both to understand how climate change will impact ecosystem services, but also to understand how vegetation changes might affect the carbon, energy and water cycles. Historically, predictions have been heavily dependent upon observations of existing vegetation boundaries. In this paper, we attempt to predict ecosystem boundaries from the ``bottom up'', and illustrate the complexities and promise of this approach.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3593-3619, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3593-2015, 2015
An automatic and effective parameter optimization method for model tuning
Summary: A “three-step” methodology is proposed to effectively obtain the optimum combination of some key parameters in cloud and convective parameterizations according to a comprehensive objective evaluation metrics. The optimal results improve the metrics performance by 9%. A software framework can automatically execute any part of the “three-step” calibration strategy. The proposed methodology and framework can easily be applied to other GCMs to speed up the model development process.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3579-3591, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3579-2015, 2015
Upscaling with the dynamic two-layer classification concept (D2C): TreeMig-2L, an efficient implementation of the forest-landscape model TreeMig
Summary: Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) often have high computational expenses, which the presented dynamic two-layer classification concept (D2C) aims to reduce. When implementing D2C into a DVM, a new layer for the dynamic grouping of grid-cells with similar climate and species compositions is introduced. The grouping of cells reduces the number of required calculations. With TreeMig-2L, I present how D2C can be implemented in a DVM and demonstrate that D2C can strongly reduce computational expenses.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3563-3577, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3563-2015, 2015
Modelling Mediterranean agro-ecosystems by including agricultural trees in the LPJmL model
Summary: This study presents the inclusion of 10 Mediterranean agricultural plants in an agro-ecosystem model (LPJmL): nut trees, date palms, citrus trees, orchards, olive trees, grapes, cotton, potatoes, vegetables and fodder grasses. The model was successfully tested in three model outputs: agricultural yields, irrigation requirements and soil carbon density. With this development presented, LPJmL is now able to simulate in good detail and mechanistically the functioning of Mediterranean agriculture.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3545-3561, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3545-2015, 2015
Validation of reactive gases and aerosols in the MACC global analysis and forecast system
Summary: The MACC project is preparing the operational atmosphere service of the European Copernicus Programme, and uses data assimilation to combine atmospheric models with available observations. Our paper provides an overview of the aerosol and trace gas validation activity of MACC. Topics are the validation requirements, the measurement data, the assimilation systems, the upgrade procedure, operational aspects and the scoring methods. A summary is provided of recent results, including special events.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3523-3543, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3523-2015, 2015
Construction of the SILAM Eulerian atmospheric dispersion model based on the advection algorithm of Michael Galperin
Summary: The paper presents a transport mechanism of SILAM CTM based on an algorithm of M. Galperin. We describe the original scheme and its updates needed for applications to long-living species, complex atmospheric flows, etc. The scheme is connected to vertical diffusion, chemical transformation and deposition algorithms. Quality of the advection routine is evaluated with a large set of tests, which showed performance fully comparable with state-of-the-art algorithms at much lower computational costs.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3497-3522, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3497-2015, 2015
Editorial: The publication of geoscientific model developments v1.1
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3487-3495, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3487-2015, 2015
On the use of Schwarz–Christoffel conformal mappings to the grid generation for global ocean models
Summary: This article applies Schwarz-Christoffel (SC) conformal mappings for single-connected and multiple-connected regions to the generation of general orthogonal grids for OGCMs, to achieve 1) the enlarged lat-lon proportion, 2) the removal of landmass and easier load balancing, 3) better spatial resolution on continental boundaries, and 4) alignment of grid lines to large-scale coastlines. The generated grids could be readily utilized by the majority of OGCMs that support general orthogonal grids.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3471-3485, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3471-2015, 2015
SHIMMER (1.0): a novel mathematical model for microbial and biogeochemical dynamics in glacier forefield ecosystems
Summary: Recent climate warming causing ice retreat exposes new terrestrial ecosystems that have potentially significant yet largely unexplored roles on large-scale biogeochemical cycling and climate. SHIMMER (Soil biogeocHemIcal Model for Microbial Ecosystem Response) is a new numerical model designed to simulate microbial community establishment and elemental cycling (C, N and P) during initial soil formation in exposed glacier forefields. It is also transferable to other extreme ecosystem types.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3441-3470, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3441-2015, 2015
Towards a new multiscale air quality transport model using the fully unstructured anisotropic adaptive mesh technology of Fluidity (version 4.1.9)
Summary: A new anisotropic hr-adaptive mesh technique has been applied to modelling of multiscale transport phenomena. Over existing air quality models typically based on static-structured grids using a locally nesting technique, the advantage of the anisotropic hr-adaptive model has the ability to adapt the mesh according to the evolving pollutant distribution and flow features. To illustrate its capability, comparisons have been made between the results obtained using adaptive and uniform meshes.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3421-3440, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3421-2015, 2015
Influence of grid aspect ratio on planetary boundary layer turbulence in large-eddy simulations
Summary: The influence of the large grid aspect ratio of horizontal to vertical grid spacing traditionally used in meteorological large-eddy simulations on simulated turbulence is investigated with a series of sensitivity tests with various grid configurations. We confirmed that the grid aspect ratio should be taken into account in the sub-grid scale model to reproduce the theoretical energy spectrum. We also found that the grid aspect ratio has an influence on the turbulent statistics.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3393-3419, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3393-2015, 2015