A high-resolution ocean and sea-ice modelling system for the Arctic and North Atlantic oceans
Summary: 1/12th degree resolution runs of Arctic--Atlantic were compared for the period 2003-2009. We found good representation of sea surface height and of its statistics; model temperature and salinity in general agreement with in situ measurements, but upper ocean properties in Beaufort Sea are challenging; distribution of concentration and volume of sea ice is improved when slowing down the ice and further improvements require better initial conditions and modifications to mixing.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1577-1594, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1577-2015, 2015
Including an ocean carbon cycle model into iLOVECLIM (v1.0)
Summary: We describe the development of a relatively simple climate model to include a model of the carbon cycle in the ocean. The carbon cycle consists of the exchange of carbon between the atmosphere, land vegetation and ocean. In the ocean, carbon exists in organic form, such as plankton which grows and dies, and inorganic forms, such as dissolved CO2. With this we will be able to explore long-standing questions such as why the atmospheric CO2 has changed over time during the last million years.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1563-1576, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1563-2015, 2015
NEMO–ICB (v1.0): interactive icebergs in the NEMO ocean model globally configured at eddy-permitting resolution
Summary: Calved icebergs account for around 50% of total freshwater input to the ocean from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. As they melt, icebergs interact with the ocean. We have developed and tested interactive icebergs in a state-of-the-art global ocean model, showing how sea ice, temperatures, and currents are disturbed by iceberg melting. With this new model capability, we are better prepared to predict how future increases in iceberg numbers might influence the oceans and climate.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1547-1562, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1547-2015, 2015
Objectified quantification of uncertainties in Bayesian atmospheric inversions
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1525-1546, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1525-2015, 2015
The Met Office Global Coupled model 2.0 (GC2) configuration
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1509-1524, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1509-2015, 2015
An improved representation of physical permafrost dynamics in the JULES land-surface model
Summary: Permafrost, ground that is frozen for 2 or more years, is found extensively in the Arctic. It stores large quantities of carbon, which may be released under climate warming, so it is important to include it in climate models. Here we improve the representation of permafrost in a climate model land-surface scheme, both in the numerical representation of soil and snow, and by adding the effects of organic soils and moss. Site simulations show significantly improved soil temperature and thaw depth.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1493-1508, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1493-2015, 2015
IceChrono1: a probabilistic model to compute a common and optimal chronology for several ice cores
Summary: This manuscript describes a probabilistic model which aims at optimizing the chronology of ice cores by combining different sources of information.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1473-1492, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1473-2015, 2015
ORCHIDEE-SRC v1.0: an extension of the land surface model ORCHIDEE for simulating short rotation coppice poplar plantations
Summary: This paper describes the modification of the widely used land surface model ORCHIDEE for stand-scale simulations of short rotation coppice (SRC) plantations. The modifications presented in this paper were evaluated using data from two Belgian poplar-based SRC sites, for which multiple measurements and meteorological data were available. The simulations show that the model predicts aboveground biomass production, ecosystem photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration well.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1461-1471, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1461-2015, 2015
Advancement toward coupling of the VAMPER permafrost model within the Earth system model iLOVECLIM (version 1.0): description and validation
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1445-1460, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1445-2015, 2015
Simulations and parameterisation of shallow volcanic plumes of Piton de la Fournaise, Réunion Island, using Méso-NH version 4-9-3
Summary: A sub-grid shallow convection scheme is adapted such that the size and intensity of the ground heat source provided by an eruption is initialised for modelling the sub-grid updraft. This parameterisation is tested on a 1-D single column model with a 1km resolution for an eruption observed at PdF in January 2010. The modelled plume agrees well with the SO2 concentrations found with LES and the adapted scheme emphasizes the sensitivity of the parameterisation to entrainment at the plume base.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1427-1443, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1427-2015, 2015
Description and evaluation of tropospheric chemistry and aerosols in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1.2)
Summary: The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), version 5, is now coupled to extensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, called CAM5-chem, and is available in addition to CAM4-chem in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) version 1.2. Both configurations are well suited as tools for atmospheric chemistry modeling studies in the troposphere and lower stratosphere.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1395-1426, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1395-2015, 2015
Development and evaluation of the Screening Trajectory Ozone Prediction System (STOPS, version 1.0)
Summary: This paper presents the development and evaluation of a hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian modeling tool based on the CMAQ model. In this tool, a small sub-domain consisting of grid cells in horizontal and veridical directions follows a trajectory defined by the mean mixed-layer wind. The advantage of this tool compared to other Lagrangian models is its capability to utilize realistic boundary conditions that change with space and time as well as a detailed treatment of chemical reactions.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1383-1394, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1383-2015, 2015
A dynamic marine iron cycle module coupled to the University of Victoria Earth System Model: the Kiel Marine Biogeochemical Model 2 for UVic 2.9
Summary: In this paper we find that including the marine cycle of the phytoplankton nutrient iron in a global climate model improves the agreement between observed and simulated nutrient concentrations in the ocean and that a better description of the source of iron from the sediment to the ocean is more important than that of iron-containing dust deposition. Finally, we find that the response of the iron cycle to climate warming affects the phytoplankton growth and nutrient cycles.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1357-1381, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1357-2015, 2015
Development of the GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model: evolution from MERRA to MERRA2
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1339-1356, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1339-2015, 2015
Modelling the role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE – Part 2: Carbon emissions and the role of fires in the global carbon balance
Summary: We conducted parallel simulations using a global land surface model, with and without fires being included, respectively. When the anthropogenic land cover change fire is excluded, we find that natural wildfires have reduced the global land carbon uptake by 0.3Pg C per year over 1901-2012. This is equivalent to 20% of the land carbon uptake in a world without fire. This fire-induced reduction in carbon uptake could be partly explained by climate variability, in particular the ENSO events.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1321-1338, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1321-2015, 2015
Structure of forecast error covariance in coupled atmosphere–chemistry data assimilation
Summary: The structure of an ensemble-based coupled atmosphere-chemistry forecast error covariance is examined using the WRF-Chem, a coupled atmosphere-chemistry model. It is found that the coupled error covariance has important cross-variable components that allow a physically meaningful adjustment of all control variables. Additional benefit of the coupled error covariance is that a cross-component impact is allowed; e.g., atmospheric observations can exert impact on chemistry analysis, and vice versa.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1315-1320, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1315-2015, 2015
The terminator "toy" chemistry test: a simple tool to assess errors in transport schemes
Summary: This test extends the evaluation of transport schemes from prescribed advection of inert scalars to reactive species. It consists of transporting two reacting chlorine-like species in an idealized flow field. The sources/sinks are given by a simple but non-linear toy chemistry that mimics photolysis-driven processes near the solar terminator. As a result, strong gradients in the spatial distribution of the species develop near the edge of the terminator.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1299-1313, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1299-2015, 2015
A generic approach to explicit simulation of uncertainty in the NEMO ocean model
Summary: In this paper, a simple and generic implementation approach is presented, with the aim of transforming a deterministic ocean model (like NEMO) into a probabilistic model. With this approach, several kinds of stochastic parameterizations are implemented to simulate the non-deterministic effect of unresolved processes, unresolved scales, and unresolved diversity. The method is illustrated with three applications, showing that uncertainties can produce a major effect in the model simulations.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1285-1297, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1285-2015, 2015
A stabilized finite element method for calculating balance velocities in ice sheets
Summary: We present a novel numerical method for computing velocity fields in ice sheets using the principle of mass conservation, and show that, for suitable smoothing of flow directions, the velocity converges to a unique solution under grid refinement. We use this method as the forward model in a constrained optimization problem, and use these so-called balance velocities to seamlessly fill in gaps between satellite-based velocity observations.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1275-1283, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1275-2015, 2015
A sparse reconstruction method for the estimation of multi-resolution emission fields via atmospheric inversion
Summary: The paper presents a statistical method (shrinkage) that can be used to estimate rough emission fields, e.g., fossil fuel CO2 emissions, from measurements of concentrations. This method is demonstrated in a test case where the emissions are modeled using wavelets. We find that the method can eliminate unnecessary complexity from the wavelet model, ensures non-negativity of the emissions, is computationally efficient and is, by construction, insensitive to prior guesses of the total emission.
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1259-1273, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-1259-2015, 2015