Journal cover Journal topic
Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 639-671, 2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Model description paper
13 Feb 2017
Review of the global models used within phase 1 of the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI)
Olaf Morgenstern1, Michaela I. Hegglin2, Eugene Rozanov18,5, Fiona M. O'Connor14, N. Luke Abraham17,20, Hideharu Akiyoshi8, Alexander T. Archibald17,20, Slimane Bekki21, Neal Butchart14, Martyn P. Chipperfield16, Makoto Deushi15, Sandip S. Dhomse16, Rolando R. Garcia7, Steven C. Hardiman14, Larry W. Horowitz13, Patrick Jöckel10, Beatrice Josse9, Douglas Kinnison7, Meiyun Lin13,23, Eva Mancini3, Michael E. Manyin12,22, Marion Marchand21, Virginie Marécal9, Martine Michou9, Luke D. Oman12, Giovanni Pitari3, David A. Plummer4, Laura E. Revell5,6, David Saint-Martin9, Robyn Schofield11, Andrea Stenke5, Kane Stone11,a, Kengo Sudo19, Taichu Y. Tanaka15, Simone Tilmes7, Yousuke Yamashita8,b, Kohei Yoshida15, and Guang Zeng1 1National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington, New Zealand
2Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK
3Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Universitá dell'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy
4Environment and Climate Change Canada, Montréal, Canada
5Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zürich (ETHZ), Zürich, Switzerland
6Bodeker Scientific, Christchurch, New Zealand
7National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, Colorado, USA
8National Institute of Environmental Studies (NIES), Tsukuba, Japan
9CNRM UMR 3589, Météo-France/CNRS, Toulouse, France
10Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
11School of Earth Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
12National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland, USA
13National Atmospheric and Ocean Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA GFDL), Princeton, New Jersey, USA
14Met Office Hadley Centre (MOHC), Exeter, UK
15Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), Tsukuba, Japan
16School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
17Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
18Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos – World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC), Davos, Switzerland
19Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
20National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), UK
21LATMOS, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), Paris, France
22Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Lanham, Maryland, USA
23Princeton University Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
anow at: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boston, Massachusetts, USA
bnow at: Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokohama, Japan
Abstract. We present an overview of state-of-the-art chemistry–climate and chemistry transport models that are used within phase 1 of the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI-1). The CCMI aims to conduct a detailed evaluation of participating models using process-oriented diagnostics derived from observations in order to gain confidence in the models' projections of the stratospheric ozone layer, tropospheric composition, air quality, where applicable global climate change, and the interactions between them. Interpretation of these diagnostics requires detailed knowledge of the radiative, chemical, dynamical, and physical processes incorporated in the models. Also an understanding of the degree to which CCMI-1 recommendations for simulations have been followed is necessary to understand model responses to anthropogenic and natural forcing and also to explain inter-model differences. This becomes even more important given the ongoing development and the ever-growing complexity of these models. This paper also provides an overview of the available CCMI-1 simulations with the aim of informing CCMI data users.

Citation: Morgenstern, O., Hegglin, M. I., Rozanov, E., O'Connor, F. M., Abraham, N. L., Akiyoshi, H., Archibald, A. T., Bekki, S., Butchart, N., Chipperfield, M. P., Deushi, M., Dhomse, S. S., Garcia, R. R., Hardiman, S. C., Horowitz, L. W., Jöckel, P., Josse, B., Kinnison, D., Lin, M., Mancini, E., Manyin, M. E., Marchand, M., Marécal, V., Michou, M., Oman, L. D., Pitari, G., Plummer, D. A., Revell, L. E., Saint-Martin, D., Schofield, R., Stenke, A., Stone, K., Sudo, K., Tanaka, T. Y., Tilmes, S., Yamashita, Y., Yoshida, K., and Zeng, G.: Review of the global models used within phase 1 of the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI), Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 639-671,, 2017.
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
We present a review of the make-up of 20 models participating in the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI). In comparison to earlier such activities, most of these models comprise a whole-atmosphere chemistry, and several of them include an interactive ocean module. This makes them suitable for studying the interactions of tropospheric air quality, stratospheric ozone, and climate. The paper lays the foundation for other studies using the CCMI simulations for scientific analysis.
We present a review of the make-up of 20 models participating in the Chemistry–Climate Model...