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Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 12, issue 1
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 473-523, 2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-12-473-2019
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 473-523, 2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-12-473-2019
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Model description paper 29 Jan 2019

Model description paper | 29 Jan 2019

A General Lake Model (GLM 3.0) for linking with high-frequency sensor data from the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON)

Matthew R. Hipsey1, Louise C. Bruce1, Casper Boon1, Brendan Busch1, Cayelan C. Carey2, David P. Hamilton3, Paul C. Hanson4, Jordan S. Read5, Eduardo de Sousa1, Michael Weber6, and Luke A. Winslow7 Matthew R. Hipsey et al.
  • 1UWA School of Agriculture & Environment, The University of Western Australia, Crawley WA, 6009, Australia
  • 2Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA
  • 3Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Brisbane QLD, Australia
  • 4Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Madison, WI, USA
  • 5U.S. Geological Survey, Water Mission Area, Middleton, WI, USA
  • 6Department of Lake Research, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Magdeburg, Germany
  • 7Department of Biological Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA

Abstract. The General Lake Model (GLM) is a one-dimensional open-source code designed to simulate the hydrodynamics of lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands. GLM was developed to support the science needs of the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON), a network of researchers using sensors to understand lake functioning and address questions about how lakes around the world respond to climate and land use change. The scale and diversity of lake types, locations, and sizes, and the expanding observational datasets created the need for a robust community model of lake dynamics with sufficient flexibility to accommodate a range of scientific and management questions relevant to the GLEON community. This paper summarizes the scientific basis and numerical implementation of the model algorithms, including details of sub-models that simulate surface heat exchange and ice cover dynamics, vertical mixing, and inflow–outflow dynamics. We demonstrate the suitability of the model for different lake types that vary substantially in their morphology, hydrology, and climatic conditions. GLM supports a dynamic coupling with biogeochemical and ecological modelling libraries for integrated simulations of water quality and ecosystem health, and options for integration with other environmental models are outlined. Finally, we discuss utilities for the analysis of model outputs and uncertainty assessments, model operation within a distributed cloud-computing environment, and as a tool to support the learning of network participants.

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The General Lake Model (GLM) has been developed to undertake simulation of a diverse range of wetlands, lakes, and reservoirs. The model supports the science needs of the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON), a network of lake sensors and researchers attempting to understand lake functioning and address questions about how lakes around the world vary in response to climate and land use change. The paper describes the science basis and application of the model.
The General Lake Model (GLM) has been developed to undertake simulation of a diverse range of...
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