Journal cover Journal topic
Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 33-45, 2011
© Author(s) 2011. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Model experiment description paper
21 Jan 2011
Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the last millennium (v1.0)
G. A. Schmidt1, J. H. Jungclaus2, C. M. Ammann3, E. Bard4, P. Braconnot5, T. J. Crowley6, G. Delaygue7, F. Joos8,15, N. A. Krivova9, R. Muscheler10, B. L. Otto-Bliesner3, J. Pongratz11, D. T. Shindell1, S. K. Solanki9,12, F. Steinhilber13, and L. E. A. Vieira14 1NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and Center for Climate Systems Research, Columbia University, New York, USA
2Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstrasse 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
3National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1850 Table Mesa Drive, Boulder, Colorado, USA
4CEREGE, Université Aix-Marseille III/CNRS/IRD/Collège de France, Europôle de l'Arbois, BP 80, 13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04, France
5Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Gif Sur Yvette, France
6School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
7Université Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I/CNRS, LGGE, 54 rue Molière, St-Martin-d'Hères, France
8Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
9Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany
10Department of Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 22362 Lund, Sweden
11Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Global Ecology, 260 Panama St., Stanford, CA 94305, USA
12School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701, Korea
13Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, EAWAG, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
14Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l'Environnement et de l'Espace and Université d'Orléans, 3A, Avenue de la Recherche, 45071 Orléans cedex 2, France
15Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
Abstract. Simulations of climate over the Last Millennium (850–1850 CE) have been incorporated into the third phase of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3). The drivers of climate over this period are chiefly orbital, solar, volcanic, changes in land use/land cover and some variation in greenhouse gas levels. While some of these effects can be easily defined, the reconstructions of solar, volcanic and land use-related forcing are more uncertain. We describe here the approach taken in defining the scenarios used in PMIP3, document the forcing reconstructions and discuss likely implications.

Citation: Schmidt, G. A., Jungclaus, J. H., Ammann, C. M., Bard, E., Braconnot, P., Crowley, T. J., Delaygue, G., Joos, F., Krivova, N. A., Muscheler, R., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Pongratz, J., Shindell, D. T., Solanki, S. K., Steinhilber, F., and Vieira, L. E. A.: Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the last millennium (v1.0), Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 33-45,, 2011.
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