Journal cover Journal topic
Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2895-2916, 2014
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Model description paper
08 Dec 2014
Tropical troposphere to stratosphere transport of carbon monoxide and long-lived trace species in the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS)
R. Pommrich3,1,2, R. Müller1, J.-U. Grooß1, P. Konopka1, F. Ploeger1, B. Vogel1, M. Tao1, C. M. Hoppe1, G. Günther1, N. Spelten1, L. Hoffmann4, H.-C. Pumphrey5, S. Viciani6, F. D'Amato6, C. M. Volk7, P. Hoor8, H. Schlager9, and M. Riese1 1IEK-7, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany
2Laboratoire d'Aérologie, UMR5560, CNRS/INSU-Université de Toulouse 3, 14 Av Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
3Groupe d'étude de l'Atmosphère Météorologique, URA 1357, CNRM-GAME, Météo-France, 42 Av Gaspard Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse CEDEX 1, France
4JSC, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany
5School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
6CNR-Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (CNR-INO), L. go E. Fermi 6, 50125 Florence, Italy
7Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany
8Johannes-Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
9Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
Abstract. Variations in the mixing ratio of trace gases of tropospheric origin entering the stratosphere in the tropics are of interest for assessing both troposphere to stratosphere transport fluxes in the tropics and the impact of these transport fluxes on the composition of the tropical lower stratosphere. Anomaly patterns of carbon monoxide (CO) and long-lived tracers in the lower tropical stratosphere allow conclusions about the rate and the variability of tropical upwelling to be drawn. Here, we present a simplified chemistry scheme for the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) for the simulation, at comparatively low numerical cost, of CO, ozone, and long-lived trace substances (CH4, N2O, CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), and CO2) in the lower tropical stratosphere. For the long-lived trace substances, the boundary conditions at the surface are prescribed based on ground-based measurements in the lowest model level. The boundary condition for CO in the lower troposphere (below about 4 km) is deduced from MOPITT measurements. Due to the lack of a specific representation of mixing and convective uplift in the troposphere in this model version, enhanced CO values, in particular those resulting from convective outflow are underestimated. However, in the tropical tropopause layer and the lower tropical stratosphere, there is relatively good agreement of simulated CO with in situ measurements (with the exception of the TROCCINOX campaign, where CO in the simulation is biased low ≈10–15 ppbv). Further, the model results (and therefore also the ERA-Interim winds, on which the transport in the model is based) are of sufficient quality to describe large scale anomaly patterns of CO in the lower stratosphere. In particular, the zonally averaged tropical CO anomaly patterns (the so called "tape recorder" patterns) simulated by this model version of CLaMS are in good agreement with observations, although the simulations show a too rapid upwelling compared to observations as a consequence of the overestimated vertical velocities in the ERA-Interim reanalysis data set. Moreover, the simulated tropical anomaly patterns of N2O are in good agreement with observations. In the simulations, anomaly patterns of CH4 and CFC-11 were found to be very similar to those of N2O; for all long-lived tracers, positive anomalies are simulated because of the enhanced tropical upwelling in the easterly shear phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation.

Citation: Pommrich, R., Müller, R., Grooß, J.-U., Konopka, P., Ploeger, F., Vogel, B., Tao, M., Hoppe, C. M., Günther, G., Spelten, N., Hoffmann, L., Pumphrey, H.-C., Viciani, S., D'Amato, F., Volk, C. M., Hoor, P., Schlager, H., and Riese, M.: Tropical troposphere to stratosphere transport of carbon monoxide and long-lived trace species in the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS), Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2895-2916,, 2014.
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
A version of the chemical transport model CLaMS is presented, which features a simplified (numerically inexpensive) chemistry scheme. The model results using this version of CLaMS show a good representation of anomaly fields of CO, CH4, N2O, and CFC-11 in the lower stratosphere. CO measurements of three instruments (COLD, HAGAR, and Falcon-CO) in the lower tropical stratosphere (during the campaign TROCCINOX in 2005) have been compared and show a good agreement within the error bars.
A version of the chemical transport model CLaMS is presented, which features a simplified...