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Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 7, issue 3
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 779–797, 2014
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-7-779-2014
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Special issue: Isaac Newton Institute programme on multiscale numerics for...

Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 779–797, 2014
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-7-779-2014
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Development and technical paper 09 May 2014

Development and technical paper | 09 May 2014

Non-orthogonal version of the arbitrary polygonal C-grid and a new diamond grid

H. Weller H. Weller
  • Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK

Abstract. Quasi-uniform grids of the sphere have become popular recently since they avoid parallel scaling bottlenecks associated with the poles of latitude–longitude grids. However quasi-uniform grids of the sphere are often non-orthogonal. A version of the C-grid for arbitrary non-orthogonal grids is presented which gives some of the mimetic properties of the orthogonal C-grid. Exact energy conservation is sacrificed for improved accuracy and the resulting scheme numerically conserves energy and potential enstrophy well. The non-orthogonal nature means that the scheme can be used on a cubed sphere. The advantage of the cubed sphere is that it does not admit the computational modes of the hexagonal or triangular C-grids. On various shallow-water test cases, the non-orthogonal scheme on a cubed sphere has accuracy less than or equal to the orthogonal scheme on an orthogonal hexagonal icosahedron.

A new diamond grid is presented consisting of quasi-uniform quadrilaterals which is more nearly orthogonal than the equal-angle cubed sphere but with otherwise similar properties. It performs better than the cubed sphere in every way and should be used instead in codes which allow a flexible grid structure.

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