Journal cover Journal topic
Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 235-259, 2015
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-8-235-2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Development and technical paper
11 Feb 2015
Application of a global nonhydrostatic model with a stretched-grid system to regional aerosol simulations around Japan
D. Goto1, T. Dai2, M. Satoh3,4, H. Tomita3,5, J. Uchida4, S. Misawa4, T. Inoue4, H. Tsuruta4, K. Ueda6, C. F. S. Ng7, A. Takami1, N. Sugimoto1, A. Shimizu1, T. Ohara1, and T. Nakajima4 1National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan
2State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
3Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, Japan
4Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Japan
5Advanced Institute for Computational Science, RIKEN, Kobe, Japan
6Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
7Department of Human Ecology School of International Health Graduate School of medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Abstract. An aerosol-coupled global nonhydrostatic model with a stretched-grid system has been developed. Circulations over the global and target domains are simulated with a single model, which includes fine meshes covering the target region to calculate meso-scale circulations. The stretched global model involves lower computational costs to simulate atmospheric aerosols with fine horizontal resolutions compared with a global uniform nonhydrostatic model, whereas it may require higher computational costs compared with the general regional models, because the stretched-grid system calculates inside and outside the target domain. As opposed to general regional models, the stretched-grid system requires neither a nesting technique nor lateral boundary conditions. In this study, we developed a new-type regional model for the simulation of aerosols over Japan, especially in the Kanto areas surrounding Tokyo, with a maximum horizontal resolution of approximately 10 km. This model usually reproduces temporal variations and their averages of the observed weather around Japan. This model generally reproduces monthly mean distributions of the observed sulfate and SO2 over East Asia, with high correlations (R > 0.6), but the underestimation of the simulated concentrations by 40% (sulfate) and 50% (SO2). Their underestimation of the simulated sulfate and SO2 concentrations over East Asia are strongly affected by their underestimation in China and possibly by the uncertainty of the simulated precipitation around Japan. In the Kanto area, this model succeeds in simulating the wind patterns and the diurnal transitions around the center of the Kanto area, although it is inadequate to simulate the wind patterns and the diurnal transitions at some sites located at the edge of the Kanto area and surrounded on three sides by mountains, e.g., Maebashi, mainly due to the insufficient horizontal resolution. This model also generally reproduces both diurnal and synoptic variations of the observed and/or a regional aerosol-transport model, WRF-CMAQ, simulated EC, sulfate, and SO2 concentrations in the Kanto area, especially with their high correlation (R > 0.5) at Komae/Tokyo. Although the aerosol module used in this study is relatively simplified compared to the general regional aerosol models, this study reveals that our proposed model with the stretched-grid system can be applicable for the regional aerosol simulation.

Citation: Goto, D., Dai, T., Satoh, M., Tomita, H., Uchida, J., Misawa, S., Inoue, T., Tsuruta, H., Ueda, K., Ng, C. F. S., Takami, A., Sugimoto, N., Shimizu, A., Ohara, T., and Nakajima, T.: Application of a global nonhydrostatic model with a stretched-grid system to regional aerosol simulations around Japan, Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 235-259, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-8-235-2015, 2015.
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Short summary
An aerosol-coupled global non-hydrostatic model with a stretched-grid system has been developed to simulate aerosols on a region scale of 10 km grids. The regional simulation does require either a nesting technique or lateral boundary conditions, as opposed to general regional models. It generally reproduces monthly mean distributions of the observed sulfate and SO2 over East Asia as well as the diurnal and synoptic variations of the observed ones around the main target region, Tokyo/Japan.
An aerosol-coupled global non-hydrostatic model with a stretched-grid system has been developed...
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