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Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 9, issue 4 | Copyright
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1423-1453, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-9-1423-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Development and technical paper 19 Apr 2016

Development and technical paper | 19 Apr 2016

Development and evaluation of CNRM Earth system model – CNRM-ESM1

Roland Séférian1, Christine Delire1, Bertrand Decharme1, Aurore Voldoire1, David Salas y Melia1, Matthieu Chevallier1, David Saint-Martin1, Olivier Aumont2, Jean-Christophe Calvet1, Dominique Carrer1, Hervé Douville1, Laurent Franchistéguy1, Emilie Joetzjer3, and Séphane Sénési1 Roland Séférian et al.
  • 1CNRM, Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques, Météo-France/CNRS, 42 Avenue Gaspard Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse, France
  • 2Sorbonne Universités (UPMC, Univ Paris 06)-CNRS-IRD-MNHN, LOCEAN-IPSL Laboratory, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France
  • 3Department of Ecology, Institute on Ecosystems, Montana State University, 111 AJM Johnson Hall, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA

Abstract. We document the first version of the Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques Earth system model (CNRM-ESM1). This model is based on the physical core of the CNRM climate model version 5 (CNRM-CM5) model and employs the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere (ISBA) and the Pelagic Interaction Scheme for Carbon and Ecosystem Studies (PISCES) as terrestrial and oceanic components of the global carbon cycle. We describe a preindustrial and 20th century climate simulation following the CMIP5 protocol. We detail how the various carbon reservoirs were initialized and analyze the behavior of the carbon cycle and its prominent physical drivers. Over the 1986–2005 period, CNRM-ESM1 reproduces satisfactorily several aspects of the modern carbon cycle. On land, the model captures the carbon cycling through vegetation and soil, resulting in a net terrestrial carbon sink of 2.2PgCyear−1. In the ocean, the large-scale distribution of hydrodynamical and biogeochemical tracers agrees with a modern climatology from the World Ocean Atlas. The combination of biological and physical processes induces a net CO2 uptake of 1.7PgCyear−1 that falls within the range of recent estimates. Our analysis shows that the atmospheric climate of CNRM-ESM1 compares well with that of CNRM-CM5. Biases in precipitation and shortwave radiation over the tropics generate errors in gross primary productivity and ecosystem respiration. Compared to CNRM-CM5, the revised ocean–sea ice coupling has modified the sea-ice cover and ocean ventilation, unrealistically strengthening the flow of North Atlantic deep water (26.1±2 Sv). It results in an accumulation of anthropogenic carbon in the deep ocean.

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This paper presents the first IPCC-class Earth system model developed at Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques (CNRM-ESM1). We detail how the various carbon reservoirs were initialized and analyze the behavior of the carbon cycle and its prominent physical drivers, comparing model results to the most up-to-date climate and carbon cycle dataset over the latest decades.
This paper presents the first IPCC-class Earth system model developed at Centre National de...
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